Hawthorn Crataegus spp.


  • Anti-inflammatory action through various avenues. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Anti-inflammatory action and protective affect in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012 Aug;367(1-2):1-8.
  • Anti-inflammatory – in rats, Hawthorn has demonstrated anti-inflammatory ability, and protection of the stomach that is similar to the drug ranitidine. It has shown particular activity against Micrococcus flavus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Bacillus subtilis J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 10;56(17):7700-9. Epub 2008 Aug 13.



  • Various cardioactive and cardioprotective actions of Hawthorne, including: Preventing or reducing cardiac remodeling, reducing problems in Chronic Congestive Heart Failure, dialating blood vessels, protecting endothelial tissue, protecting against Ischemia and reperfusion injury, promoting regular heart rhythm, and reducing blood pressure. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Benefits in Heart Failure – this review reported that Hawthorn (extract of leaf and flower) can “improve exercise performance in chronic heart failure without an important risk of side effects”. The studies reviewed suggested that Hawthorn can “increases exercise performance and cardiac oxygen consumption and may improve heart-failure symptoms such as dyspnea and fatigue. Even though most of the studies reviewed involved using Hawthorn as well as conventional medications, rarely did the studies report mortality or rates of cardiac events”. Reported side effects were said to be “infrequent, mild, and transient”. Heartwire. January 30, 2008
  • Improve symptoms of Heart Failure – an extract of the berries demonstrated the ability to improve symptoms in patients with NYHA II heart failure Phytomedicine. 2003;10(5):363-9.
  • Some action inhibiting ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme – the flavonoids and proanthocyanidins from Hawthorn have shown this ability. Phytomedicine. 2001 Jan;8(1):47-52.
  • May relax blood vessels – this ability has been shown with the flavonoids and proanthocyanidins on rat aortas, likely by increasing Nitric Oxide (NO) production in the tissues Life Sci. 2000;67(2):121-31.
  • Prevent arrhythmia – treating rats before the problem started helped prevent arrhythmia Basic Res Cardiol. 1999 Apr;94(2):71-7.


  • Plasma lipids, such as LDL, may be prevented from elevating. Alternative Medicine Review Volume 3, Number 2, 1998
  • Lower cholesterol – in rats, it has reduced LDL cholesterol, increases bile acid secretion, and reduces the liver’s production of cholesterol Atherosclerosis. 1996 Jun;123(1-2):235-41.


  • Hawthorne showed hypogycemic effects in rats. J Herb Pharmacother. 2003;3(2):19-29.

Digestive System